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Computer Science Reconsidered: The Invocation Model of Process Expression »

Book cover image of Computer Science Reconsidered: The Invocation Model of Process Expression by Karl M. Fant

Authors: Karl M. Fant, John Rush
ISBN-13: 9780471798149, ISBN-10: 0471798142
Format: Hardcover
Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
Date Published: July 2007
Edition: (Non-applicable)

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Author Biography: Karl M. Fant

Karl M. Fant is the founder and CEO of Theseus Research, Inc., a consulting firm specializing in the design and implementation of real-time image processing systems as well as ongoing research into the theory of computers. Mr. Fant developed the NULL Convention Logic, a fully expressive logic for designing and implementing clockless digital electronic circuits and systems. He is coinventor of Computer Generated Synthesized Imagery, which generates photo-realistic scenes in real time from libraries of photographic images. He holds twenty-eight patents.

Book Synopsis

A groundbreaking, seminal work that challenges the theoretical foundations of computer science

This seminal work will challenge and change your understanding of computers and computing. Since the invention of the computer, it has been accepted with little question that the theoretical foundations of computer science are found in mathematics. The difficulties of computer science have been attributed to the inherent complexity of computation, which can only be overcome with disciplined methodology.

The author of this text presents a convincing and carefully structured argument that shows why linking computer science to mathematics results in unnecessary complexity and confusion. Instead, the author sets forth and demonstrates the viability and practicality of a new conceptual model, the invocation model of process expression. This model links the design and function of computer systems with the design and function of biological systems. Moreover, the author shows how changing your underlying assumptions sheds new light on dealing with such complex issues as concurrency, digital computers, and biological cells.

The chapters of this text are organized under three main topics:

  • The Problem: Why the underlying theory of contemporary computer science is not helpful
  • The Solution: How the invocation model of process expression solves many problems of contemporary computer science
  • The Invocation Language: How the invocation model is embodied in symbol string expression

For computer scientists and engineers, this publication opens up a completely new way of understanding what computers are, how they work, and what they can do. For students of computer science, it offers an alternative theory that helps them understand and overcome some of the limitations imposed by current theory.

Table of Contents


Preface     xvii
A Critical Review of the Notion of the Algorithm in Computer Science     1
The Notion of the Algorithm in Mathematics     1
The Advent of Computers     5
Computer Science     6
The Algorithm in Computer Science     7
Conclusion     9
References     9
The Simplicity of Concurrency     11
The Primacy of Sequentiality     12
The Complexity of Concurrency     12
The Demon of Indeterminacy     12
The State Space Explosion     13
Elusive Confidence     14
Confusions     14
The Roots of Apparent Complexity     15
The Behavior of Mathematical Functions     15
Re-establishing the Expression of Boundaries     16
Composing Time Intervals     17
The Simplicity of Sequentiality     17
Symbolic Coordination     17
Symbolically Expressing Data Flow Boundaries     17
Logically Recognizing Data Flow Boundaries     18
The Completeness Behavior of a Network of Enhanced Functions     19
A New Symbolic Primitivity     20
Ignoring NULL     21
Coordinating ConcurrentNetworks     21
The Self-coordinating Network     21
Composing Cycles     22
Partitioning a Concurrent Network     23
Hierarchical Partitioning     23
Lateral Partitioning     24
The Simplicity of Concurrency     25
The Complexity of Sequentiality     27
Unavoidable Concurrency     27
The Variety of Sequence     27
The Irreversibility of Sequence     28
The Necessary Expression of Memory     28
The Necessary Expression of Control     29
Sequentiality Cannot Be Expressionaly Primitive     29
Conclusion     30
A Question of Primitivity     30
A Labyrinth of Concepts     31
A Discord of Conceptual Views     32
Illusions of Difficulty     32
A Question of Philosophy     33
References     34
Dehumanizing Computer Science     35
The Humans in Computer Science     35
Eliminating the Humans     36
The Engineering Human     36
Eliminating the Human Engineer     38
Eliminating the Conceiving Human     40
Humanless Symbol Systems      41
References     41
Transcending the Variable     43
The Variable in Mathematics     43
The Variable in Computer Science     44
The Confusion     44
The Discontents     44
A Competition of Mathematical Formalisms     45
Process Expression as Association Relationships     46
Transcending the Variable     50
References     51
The Invocation Model     53
Thengs and Values     53
Pure Value Expression     54
The Mutual Association of Thengs     54
The Value Transform Rule     55
Value Differentiation     56
Differentness as Limitation of Behavior     57
Differentness as Ongoing Behavior     57
Roman Numerals     58
Expressional Completeness     60
Pure Value Summary     63
Association Expression     65
The Behavior of Statically Associated Thengs     66
Directionalizing the Resolution Behavior of Association Expressions     66
Discretizing the Resolution Behavior of Association Relationships     70
Summary of Discretization and Directionalization     74
The Pure Association Expression     74
Association Expression Summary     79
The Spectrum of Expression     80
The Search     81
Association Search     82
Association Search Failures     82
Value Search     83
The Value Transform Search     83
Warp and Woof     83
Summary     84
Along the Spectrum     85
The Example Process     85
Place on the Spectrum     85
Ignoring NULL     86
Four Available Data Values     86
Name Recognition     86
Appreciation Behavior     89
The Complete Expression     92
Correspondence with Boolean Logic     92
A Universal Four-Value Operator     93
The Rotate Operator     94
The Equality Operator     95
The Assertion Operator     95
The Priority Operator     95
The Four-Value Expression with the Universal Operator     96
The Expressivity of Operators     96
Six Available Data Values     97
Nine Available Data Values     97
Fifteen Available Data Values: Pure Value Expression     97
Three Available Data Values     98
Two Available Data Values     98
One Available Data Value     100
Summary     100
Composing Boundaries     103
Boundaries of Completeness Behavior     103
Association Boundaries     104
Pure Value Boundaries     106
Greater Composition     108
Summary     109
Coordinating Boundaries     110
The Cycle     110
Flow Coordination     111
Integrated Coordination     111
Level of Coordination     111
Recovering Temporal and Spatial Alignment     116
Generating Skewed Wavefront Flow     117
Composing Coordination     117
Nature's Coordination     118
Partitioning the Network     118
Completeness Boundaries and Concurrent Behavior     119
Hierarchical Partitioning     120
Lateral Partitioning     122
Mapping the Network     123
Automatic Partitioning and Mapping     124
Coordinating Pure Value Expressions     124
The Pure Value Cycle     125
Coordinating Cycles     126
Integrating the Expression of Function and Coordination     128
Associating Pure Value Expressions     128
Coordination of Value Flow Among Pure Value Expressions     130
Reusing Values     130
The Last Association Boundaries     132
Closing the Expression     132
Pure Value Composition     132
The Composition Hierarchy     133
Summary     134
Time and Memory     135
Association Through Time     136
Pipeline Memory     136
Graphical Pipeline Representation     136
Differential Pipeline Population     136
The Feedback Ring     137
Composition of Memories     138
Patterns of Differentness in Time     139
Patterns of Behavior in Time     140
A Behavior Search     140
Composition of Behavior Mappers     142
Experience Memory     143
Behavior Memory     143
Recognition Memory     144
A New Form of Expression     144
The Expression of Memory     145
The Expression of Time     146
Whither Referent?     147
The Arrogance of Bulk     147
Whither Stability?      148
A Greater Search     149
The Goal     149
Time and Memory in Pure Value Expression     150
Summary     150
Incidental Time     151
Sequentialization of Associations     151
Time-Space Trade-Off     152
Reusing Operators     152
Sequencing the Feedback Network     155
A Final Merge     157
Referential Expression     157
The Transformed Nature of the Expression     160
Commands in Memory     160
Subexpressions and Iteration     160
Indirect Addressing and Data Structures     160
A Generally Configurable Expression     161
The Conventional Synchronous Sequential Architecture     161
New Notions of Expressivity     161
Summary     162
Points of View     163
Number as Differentness     163
Interaction of Numeric Differentness     164
Projecting Numeric Differentness     165
A Landing Eagle     165
The Numeric View     165
The Eagle's View     166
The Single-Digit Number     168
Single-Digit Number Expressions     169
Two Methods of Approximation     169
Two Views of Expression     170
The Eagle's Answer     171
Formalism Versus Form     172
This Primitive-That Primitive     172
The Stateless Primitive     172
The State-Holding Primitive     173
The Consequences     174
Big Thengs-Little Thengs     175
Nature's Big Thengs     175
Composition Strategies     176
Observer-Participant     176
Behaving Particles     176
Observed Particles     177
Observer and Participant     177
Invisible Behaviors and Illusory Behaviors     178
Complementary Chaos     179
Complementary Order     179
Chaotic Flow or Orderly Flow     179
Asymmetric Points of View     180
Finding a Point of View     180
Slippery Words     180
Summary     181
Referential and Autonomous Process Expression     183
Autonomous to Referential     183
Primitive Expressivity     183
Loss of Symmetry     184
Meaning     184
Process and Data     184
Intermediate Memory     184
Internal Models of Encountered Expressions     184
Common Symbols     185
Symbolic Processes     185
Transcendent Expression     186
Referential to Autonomous     186
By Association Expression     186
By Artificial Expression     186
Economies of Referential Expression     187
Hierarchical Parsimony     188
Partitioning Uniformity     188
Coordination Simplicity     188
Resource Indifference     189
Archetypal Referential Expression     189
Elusive Essence     189
A Chosen Standard     190
Point of View     192
Summary     192
Referential of Autonomous     192
The Internal Expression     193
Sampling an Amoeba     193
Referential to Autonomous     194
Pure Value Referential Expression     194
Continual Mapping of Referential to Autonomous     195
Summary     196
The Invocation Language     197
The Nature of Symbol String Expression     197
A Language of Association Relationships     198
The Syntax Structures      199
Lateral Composition: Place-to-Place Association     199
Hierarchical Composition: The Invocation and Definition     200
The Association of Invocation and Definition     202
Abbreviated Forms of the Invocation and Definition     203
The Comma     206
Completeness Relations     206
Full Completeness     206
Mutually Exclusive Completeness Relations     206
Conditional Completeness     207
Arbitration Completeness     209
Complex Completeness Relationships     209
The Occasional Output     210
Bundled Content     211
Expression Structure     212
Name Correspondence Search     213
Scope of Correspondence Name Reference     213
A Progression of Examples     214
Imperative Form     214
Functional Form     216
Net List Form     217
Longer Value Transform Rule Names     217
Limited Set of Name-Forming Symbols     218
More Available Content Values     218
Pure Value Expression     220
Another Pure Value Expression     220
Pure Association Expression      221
Another Pure Association Full-Adder     224
Greater Composition: Four-Bit Adder     225
Associated Invocations     225
Nested Invocations     226
Nested Definitions     226
Structureless Expression     227
Conditionality     228
If-Then-Else     229
If-Then     229
Multi-way Conditionality     230
Coordination Boundaries     230
Invocation Boundaries     231
Coordination Behavior     231
Coordinating Boundaries     233
Large Domains of Differentness     236
Experience Memory     238
Conditional Iteration     239
Value Sequencer     240
Code Detector     241
A Control Program     243
LFSR     245
Summary     246
Reflections     249
In the Beginning     249
The Root Problem     250
The Labyrinth     250
Exiting the Labyrinth     251
Computer Gods     251
What's in a Name?     252
The Invocation Model     252
Composing Differentness      253
The Cycle     253
The Last Composition     254
Nature's Compositions     254
Time and Memory     254
The Arrogance of Bulk     255
Incidental Time     255
Points of View     255
Referential and Autonomous Expression     256
The Invocation Language     257
Comparisons     257
Models of Concurrency     257
Petri Nets     257
Data Flow     258
Asynchronous Circuit Design     259
Actors     260
Connectionism     260
Conclusion     260
References     261
Index     263

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